- The Restoration – the reign of Charles II 1630-1660 (after his restoration to the throne in 1630 following the English Civil War and Cromwell).
- The Age of Enlightenment – the 18th century.
- A dramatic rise of literate people
- Factories begin to spring up as industrial revolution begins
- Impoverished masses begin to grow as farming life declines and factories are built
- Coffee Houses – where educated men spent their evenings with literary and political groups
- Letters, diaries, biographies
- Emphasis on reason and logic
- Stresses harmony, stability, wisdom
- Emphasis on the individual
- Belief that humanity is basically evil
- Approach to life ”the world as it should be”
- Daniel Defoe
- Jonathan Swift
- Alexander Pope
- John Milton