Atât verbul to have cât și verbul have got se folosesc pentru:
- a exprima posesia
- a vorbi despre relațiile pe care le avem cu alte persoane
- a vorbi despre felul în care arătăm
- a vorbi despre felul în care ne simțim sau situații temporare în care ne aflăm
Diferența dintre cele două verbe constă în faptul că to have se folosește atât în engleza americană cât și în cea britanică și că poate fi folosit ca și verb auxiliar (în formarea altor timpuri verbale), iar have got se utilizează în engleza britanică.
Atunci când vorbim despre lucrurile pe care le facem vom folosi verbul to have și nu have got!
I have a cup of coffee with milk every day!
Paula is having a shower right now.
They have breakfast together every morning.
Positive: S + have/has
I have a new mobile phone.
Negative: S + do not (don’t)/does not (doesn’t) + have
She does not have a computer.
Questions: Do/Does + S + have + ?
Do you have a brother?
Positive: S + have got (‘ve got)/has got (‘s got)
You have got a cute cat.
Negative: S + have not (haven’t)/has not (hasn’t) + got
They haven’t got their homework.
Questions: Have/Has + S + got + ?
Have you got this book?
Pentru mai multe exemple accesați linkul de mai jos!
About the author
John Hoyer Updike (March 18, 1932 – January 27, 2009) was an American novelist, poet, short story writer, art critic, and literary critic. One of only three writers to win the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction more than once (the others were Booth Tarkington and William Faulkner), Updike published more than twenty novels, more than a dozen short-story collections, as well as poetry, art and literary criticism and children’s books during his career.
Hundreds of his stories, reviews, and poems appeared in The New Yorker starting in 1954. He also wrote regularly for The New York Review of Books. His most famous work is his „Rabbit” series (the novels Rabbit, Run; Rabbit Redux; Rabbit Is Rich; Rabbit at Rest; and the novella Rabbit Remembered), which chronicles the life of the middle-class every man Harry „Rabbit” Angstrom over the course of several decades, from young adulthood to death. Both Rabbit Is Rich (1982) and Rabbit at Rest (1990) were recognized with the Pulitzer Prize.
Describing his subject as „the American small town, Protestant middle class”, Updike was recognized for his careful craftsmanship, his unique prose style, and his prolific output – he wrote on average a book a year. Updike populated his fiction with characters who „frequently experience personal turmoil and must respond to crises relating to religion, family obligations, and marital infidelity”.
His fiction is distinguished by its attention to the concerns, passions, and suffering of average Americans, its emphasis on Christian theology, and its preoccupation with sexuality and sensual detail. His work has attracted significant critical attention and praise, and he is widely considered one of the great American writers of his time. Updike’s highly distinctive prose style features a rich, unusual, sometimes arcane vocabulary as conveyed through the eyes of „a wry, intelligent authorial voice” that describes the physical world extravagantly while remaining squarely in the realist tradition. He described his style as an attempt „to give the mundane its beautiful due”.
John Updike won the 1964 National Book Award for his third novel, The Centaur. The strangely compelling mixture of contemporary 1947 Pennsylvania and ancient Greek mythological figures like Chiron, Prometheus, Venus and Zeus enticed some critics completely into accepting Updike into the ranks of the America’s serious writers. The book also left a minority still questioning whether Updike was truly young, gifted, and profound or merely too clever by half. The ensuing decades made the reception given to The Centaur something akin to a microcosm of Updike’s entire career.
At the thematic heart of The Centaur is Updike’s contention that education American reader of his generation were more familiar with the Greek myths than the Biblical stories and thus could use them to analogize their lives to a greater degree. Through the allegorical symbolism centering upon one of the lesser known mythical figures—Chiron—Updike has fashioned a tale grounded in the accessibility the American high school experience to examine the sacrificial concepts bereft of Christian iconoclasm. In so doing, he not only exposes his fervent belief in the demythologizing of Christianity in 20th century America, but embeds his distinctly non-mythic characters and plot into a long-standing academic tradition.
Thus, the ascension of Updike via The Centaur into the upper echelon of American letters with a novel that is, ultimately, about a high school teacher who has given up on his own dream and psoriasis-afflicted son with dreams of becoming the American Vermeer.
Setting and Context
The events take place in Olinger and Alton, Pennsylvania after the World War II. They are mostly dedicated to George Caldwell, who suffers from depressive and suicidal thoughts, and his son Peter, who tries to help his father. It is a personal, social and family drama against the background of social issues. Mythological context helps to clarify intentions of the characters.
Narrator and Point of View
The story is mostly told from the third point of view by an omniscient narrator. However, there are several chapters, which are told from the first point of view by Peter.
Tone and Mood
To depict Caldwell’s uneasiness, lack of self-confidence and depressiveness, the depressive tone is used. The mood is troubling.
Protagonist and Antagonist
George Caldwell is the protagonist of the story. Zimmerman (Zeus) is the antagonist of the story.
The major conflict is person vs. self. George Caldwell gives up on himself and it prevents him from living a normal life.
The moment, when George Caldwell finds out that he doesn’t have a terminal decease could be considered the climax of the novel.
An arrow, which strikes George’s leg, is foreshadowing. According to the myth, The Centaur Chiron starts thinking about death and eventually dies after getting an injury by an arrow. Keeping in mind that George is The Centaur Chiron, a reader knows his fate from the very beginning.
Having been injured by an arrow during a lesson, a teacher, George Caldwell, has to interrupt the teaching process to deal with sharp pain. The depressive centaur is driven to an edge by his work, humiliation, teasing and lack of money. According to him, the best things in his life have already passed. His glory as a promising football player and a hero of the World War I has been forgotten long ago.
This way of thinking saddens his son. Although Peter has a girlfriend, he can’t stop worrying about his father. The more George talks about death, the more worried he becomes. The family lives outside the city, so the father and the son have to drive to the school every day. Instead of long heart-to-hearts, they have either arguments or useless small talks. Trying to protect his father, Peter often comes to his class during the breaks. The boy’s case of psoriasis becomes even worse under these circumstances.
Meanwhile, George starts suspecting that the headmaster, Zimmerman (Zeus), is going to dismiss him and looks for a reason. He complains about feeling ill to his wife. He does it a lot, though this time is different. George goes to a doctor. When the examination is finished, the pair goes outside, the father decides to go to Alton to make his x-ray done and then go to a sport club to support his team.
The boy tries to support his father but it proves to be impossible. He goes to a movie, while his father is busy supporting the school’s swim team he coaches. Later on, Peter finds out that the team loses. They have to get back home but the car doesn’t start. They look for help but find only a drunken man who begs for money. He thinks that George wants to rape the boy. This episode sobers George, since he understands that death was close.
After the night in a hotel, they come back home. Unfortunately for George, his problems don’t cease. He claims that he is a commie and an atheist. He notices how the headmaster’s mistress leaves his office and is consequently afraid of revenge. When he comes to watch a baseball game, there is no ticket for him. The car doesn’t start again and no one stops to help them. The results of his examination don’t show any trace of a serious illness. In spite of this fact he can’t carry on, and he accepts death.
George and Peter love each other and both try to do everything possible to protect each other. However, wishing is not enough. Readers have a chance to see a classic problem of misunderstanding, when both parties assume too much and never speak openly or listen to each other. To cast aside mythology and historical references, we will get a story about the importance of a father figure in a life of a teenage boy.
George Caldwell was a good teacher, who knew the subject perfectly and was clever enough to explain the material in a funny and witty way. Surprisingly enough, his students were not interested in the things he taught. Who needed general science? That was absolutely useless information for them. Although his students misbehaved during their lessons, they were always happy to chat with him after classes. According to Peter, they sucked energy out of him, asking him for a piece of advice or just wasting his time on aimless chatting. This is example of a strange kind of friendship between a teacher and students, who consider themselves to be enemies during the lessons, but communicate amicably as soon as the lessons end.
All characters in this story have different views on death. For George Caldwell, it is the only one solution of his emotional and physical torment. For Pop Kramer, it is something that shouldn’t be hurried up. For Peter, it is just evidence that he is not good enough for his father to want to live. However, the theme of death is one of the most important in the story
George also believes that his death might help both his wife and his son. According to one version of a myth about Chiron, he sacrifices his life for Prometheus. George thinks that he is a burden, which prevents the rest of his family from a happy life, and doesn’t believe that he has enough strengths to work on their mutual happiness. His suicide is more like self-sacrifice for the others’ sake.
Symbols, allegories and motifs
Mount Olympus has been considered a home of the Greek gods and goddesses, a sacred place: Olinger high school is an allegory of Olympus. Mighty Zeus, “cloud gathering king of the weather” is, quite obviously, a headmaster. Venus, a goddess of beauty, is a physical education instructor, while her husband Hephaestus is a local machinist. Due to the fact that the gods and goddesses in the Greek mythology are equipped with natural human feelings, Olinger high school is a perfect allegory of Olympus.
An abyss (Symbol)
An abyss is a symbol of despair. When George’s level of despair reaches its limit, he masters all his courage to take “a very great step, for which all the walking in his life had not prepared him”. The abyss is so deep that it “would take an eternity to get there” and as deep and overwhelming as George’s gloom.
George Caldwell is sure that his death would be “the best thing he ever did” for his family. He is ashamed of himself and the fact that he is not able to provide his family with a decent life. According to George, he is “a walking junk heap”. He even recommends his son “to trade in on a new old man”. His lack of wish to continue living his life becomes one of the main motifs of the story.
According to the Oxford dictionary,
IT is a PRONOUN (third person singular) – that is used to refer to:
1.A thing previously mentioned or easily identified.
2.Referring to an animal or child of unspecified sex
She was holding the baby, cradling it and smiling into its face.
3.Referring to a fact or situation previously mentioned, known, or happening.
Stop it, you’re hurting me
4.To identify a person.
It’s a boy.
5.Used in the normal subject position in statements about time, distance, or weather.
It’s half past five.
It was two miles to the island.
6.Used in the normal subject or object position when a more specific subject or object is given later in the sentence.
It is impossible to assess the problem.
She found it interesting to learn about their strategy.
7.To emphasize a following part of a sentence.
It is the child who is the victim.
8.The situation or circumstances; things in general.
No one can stay here – it’s too dangerous now.
9.Exactly what is needed or desired.
You either got it or you haven’t.
10.It (informal third personal singular) – sexual intercourse or sex appeal.
The only thing I knew nothing about was ‘it’.
11. It (informal attributive third person singular) – denoting a person or thing that is exceptionally fashionable, popular, or successful at a particular time.
The company is renting out the It bags of the moment for as little as £10 a week.
12.Usually ‘it’ third person singular (in children’s games) the player who has to catch the others.
- That’s it
That is the main point or difficulty.‘‘Is she going?’ ‘That’s just it—she can’t make up her mind.’’
That is enough or the end.‘okay, that’s it, you’ve cried long enough’
This is it
The expected event is about to happen.‘this is it—the big sale’
This is enough or the end.‘this is it, I’m going’
So, the short version is that we usually use ‘it’ when we talk about animals or inanimate objects.
Eg. This is a stone. It is heavy.
That is a flower. It is blue.
Although when we are talking about animals we use it, if we want to emphasize the special or personal relationship with a specific animal or if we want to show its sex, we can use he or she.
Eg. I saw a dog. It was big. (here there is no personal relationship with the animal)
I saw a dog. He/she was big. (here we are referring to the sex of the animal)
So, it is grammatically correct to use ‘she’ or ‘he’ to refer to animals. By doing this we can show our affection and we personalise the animal.
Eg. My cat is very friendly. She always plays with everybody.
Of course everybody knows how to greet in English; everyone has heard about ”hello” and ”how are you?” multiple times! But now, let’s see some other ways of greeting people!
Informal English greetings and expressions
- Hey, Hi – you can use them instead of ‘hello’ and they are very popular among young people.
- How are you doing? How’s it going? vs. How are you? – the first two are more casual, the informal version for ‘how are you?’ while the last one is more polite and formal.
- What’s up? What’s new? What’s going on? – again we have here informal greetings and they are usually used to greet someone that we have already met before.
- How’s everything? How are things? How’s life? – they are basically other ways of asking people ‘how are they?’
- How’s your day? – you will use this greeting with someone that you see quite often.
- Good to see you! Nice to see you! – they are used with friends and family, especially if you haven’t seen them for a long time.
- Long time no see! It’s been a while! – we can use these when we meet with someone all of a sudden.
Formal English greetings and expressions
- Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening. – they are the formal ways of saying ‘hello’ and they can change depending on the time of day.
- It’s nice to meet you! Pleased to meet you! – formal and polite greetings; very good when you meet someone for the first time!
- How do you do? – a very formal greeting, used especially by older people; it is not very common. The answer to this question can be ‘I’m doing well’, or ‘How do you do’, although it may sound strange.
I will attach two documents and some songs that you can use with the younger learners for more information about greetings in English!
The songs are very good for young learners!
I hope you have found all these information useful!
Goodbye! See you later! Take care! 🙂
And bye the way, ‘goodbye’ (an alteration of God be with you!) can be found written in many forms, according to Merriam Webster Dictionary. These forms are:
- Goodbye or Good-bye – which are more common and frequently used
- Goodby or Good-by – which are less common.
Learning and teaching a second language is challenging, especially if you have to teach children of different ages and levels. When I first started to teach English to small children from primary school I thought it was very difficult and I really had no idea of how to deal with them, even if I have learned at the university the theory. The practice is totally different; nobody tells you what will you find in a classroom. But eventually you adapt, you get to know the students and you find your own rhythm and pace. I enjoy teaching children from primary school because they learn very easy and you can play with them and use so many games through which they acquire new vocabulary. And of course, they are the most honest students, they share everything with you, they are fun to teach and to watch.
When teaching them the alphabet I always use songs because they are catchy and children love them. My favourite songs with which I teach the alphabet are the ones from Dream English Kids:
Even if songs are useful, flashcards are very good, too! Children like to see and to touch things; some of them learn better if they can see the actual letter, or if they can make some connections. My favourite flashcards that I use in the classroom are these: abc-flashcards. There are many others and you can find some on this site.
What other ways and methods do you use to teach the alphabet?