Possessive adjectives

 

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Personal pronouns

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According to the Oxford dictionary,

IT is a PRONOUN (third person singular) – that is used to refer to:

1.A thing previously mentioned or easily identified.

A room with two beds in it

2.Referring to an animal or child of unspecified sex

She was holding the baby, cradling it and smiling into its face.

3.Referring to a fact or situation previously mentioned, known, or happening.

Stop it, you’re hurting me

4.To identify a person.

It’s me.

It’s a boy.

5.Used in the normal subject position in statements about time, distance, or weather.

It’s half past five.

It was two miles to the island.

It’s raining.

6.Used in the normal subject or object position when a more specific subject or object is given later in the sentence.

It is impossible to assess the problem.

She found it interesting to learn about their strategy.

7.To emphasize a following part of a sentence.

It is the child who is the victim.

8.The situation or circumstances; things in general.

No one can stay here – it’s too dangerous now.

9.Exactly what is needed or desired.

You either got it or you haven’t.

10.It (informal third personal singular) – sexual intercourse or sex appeal.

The only thing I knew nothing about was ‘it’.

11. It (informal attributive third person singular) – denoting a person or thing that is exceptionally fashionable, popular, or successful at a particular time.

The company is renting out the It bags of the moment for as little as £10 a week.

12.Usually ‘it’ third person singular (in children’s games) the player who has to catch the others.

Phrases

  • That’s it

     

    That is the main point or difficulty.

    ‘‘Is she going?’ ‘That’s just it—she can’t make up her mind.’’
     

    That is enough or the end.

    ‘okay, that’s it, you’ve cried long enough’
     
  • This is it

     

    The expected event is about to happen.

    ‘this is it—the big sale’

    This is enough or the end.

    ‘this is it, I’m going’
     

     

So, the short version is that we usually use ‘it’ when we talk about animals or inanimate objects.

Eg. This is a stone. It is heavy.

That is a flower. It is blue.

Although when we are talking about animals we use it, if we want to emphasize the special or personal relationship with a specific animal or if we want to show its sex, we can use he or she. 

Eg. I saw a dog. It was big. (here there is no personal relationship with the animal)

I saw a dog. He/she was big.  (here we are referring to the sex of the animal)

So, it is grammatically correct to use ‘she’ or ‘he’ to refer to animals. By doing this we can show our affection and we personalise the animal. 

Eg. My cat is very friendly. She always plays with everybody.

 

English Greetings

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Of course everybody knows how to greet in English; everyone has heard about ”hello” and ”how are you?” multiple times! But now, let’s see some other ways of greeting people!

Informal English greetings and expressions

  1. Hey, Hi – you can use them instead of ‘hello’ and they are very popular among young people.
  2. How are you doing? How’s it going? vs. How are you? – the first two are more casual, the informal version for ‘how are you?’ while the last one is more polite and formal.
  3. What’s up? What’s new? What’s going on? – again we have here informal greetings and they are usually used to greet someone that we have already met before.
  4. How’s everything? How are things? How’s life? – they are basically other ways of asking people ‘how are they?’
  5. How’s your day? – you will use this greeting with someone that you see quite often.
  6. Good to see you! Nice to see you! – they are used with friends and family, especially if you haven’t seen them for a long time.
  7. Long time no see! It’s been a while! – we can use these when we meet with someone all of a sudden.

Formal English greetings and expressions

  1. Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening. – they are the formal ways of saying ‘hello’ and they can change depending on the time of day.
  2. It’s nice to meet you! Pleased to meet you! – formal and polite greetings; very good when you meet someone for the first time!
  3. How do you do? – a very formal greeting, used especially by older people; it is not very common. The answer to this question can be ‘I’m doing well’, or ‘How do you do’, although it may sound strange.

I will attach two documents and some songs that you can use with the younger learners for more information about greetings in English!

  1. greetings-and-farewells
  2.  formal-vs-informal-chart

Songs

The songs are very good for young learners!

 

 

 

 

I hope you have found all these information useful! 

Goodbye! See you later! Take care! 🙂

And bye the way, ‘goodbye’ (an alteration of God be with you!) can be found written in many forms, according to Merriam Webster Dictionary. These forms are:

  • Goodbye or Good-bye – which are more common and frequently used
  • Goodby or Good-by – which are less common.

Let’s learn the ABC!

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Learning and teaching a second language is challenging, especially if you have to teach children of different ages and levels. When I first started to teach English to small children from primary school I thought it was very difficult and I really had no idea of how to deal with them, even if I have learned at the university the theory. The practice is totally different; nobody tells you what will you find in a classroom. But eventually you adapt, you get to know the students and you find your own rhythm and pace. I enjoy teaching children from primary school because they learn very easy and you can play with them and use so many games through which they acquire new vocabulary. And of course, they are the most honest students, they share everything with you, they are fun to teach and to watch. 

When teaching them the alphabet I always use songs because they are catchy and children love them. My favourite songs with which I teach the alphabet are the ones from Dream English Kids:

Even if songs are useful, flashcards are very good, too! Children like to see and to touch things; some of them learn better if they can see the actual letter, or if they can make some connections. My favourite flashcards that I use in the classroom are these: abc-flashcards. There are many others and you can find some on this site.

What other ways and methods do you use to teach the alphabet?